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Dementia and Effects of Exercise

Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review

1. According to the quality and direction of the evidence, there was strong evidence to support the use of exercise in improving all of the following in people with mild cognitive impairment or mild-to-moderate-grade dementia, except for:

A. Strength B. Flexibility C. Step length D. Balance

2. Specificity of training appears to be an important factor in obtaining beneficial effects on _____ outcomes.

A. Impairment-level B. Activity-level C. Both (A) and (B) D. None of the above

3. The sensitivity analysis showed that specific aerobic training led to the greatest improvement in:

A. The 6-minute walk distance B. Lower limb strength C. Endurance D. Flexibility

4. For more complex activity-level outcomes such as balance, the specificity of training seems to be more important.

A. True B. False

5. Which form of exercise, other than specific ADL training, was found to be beneficial for higher levels of function like ADL?

A. Cycling exercise B. Handball training C. Dance and movement therapy D. All of the above

6. Based on the overall evidence, it can be deduced that regular multimodal exercise with a combination of resistance, aerobic, balance, flexibility, and functional training for around _____ is effective in improving various aspects of physical function.

A. 30 minutes a day, 3 to 4 days a week B. 60 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week C. 30 minutes a day, 5 to 6 days a week D. 60 minutes a day, 5 to 6 days a week

7. When compared with the mild cognitive impairment and mild-grade dementia group, the moderate dementia group showed more improvement in all of the following, except:

A. BBS B. TUG C. Walking speed D. All of the above were improved in the moderate dementia group compared to the mild group

Long-term effects of a 12 weeks high-intensity functional exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: a single blinded randomized controlled trial

8. In addition to impaired cognition, reduced ADL function, and changed behavior, dementia normally affects:

A. Balance B. Mobility C. Gait D. All of the above

9. The EG had a significant improvement in lower limb strength compared to the CG.

A. True B. False

10. Lower limb strength declined during detraining in both the EG and the CG.

A. True B. False

11. The CG decline during the detraining period was of a greater extent than the EG, indicating that even terminated exercise has some effect.

A. True B. False

12. From baseline to the 6 months assessment, the differences between the exercise group and the control group were significant for the:

A. Agitation sub-score B. Berg Balance Scale C. Six-meter walking test D. Chair stand test

Experiences of older people with dementia participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program in nursing homes: “While it’s tough, it’s useful”

13. The participants described the exercise of this study as:

A. Challenging, since it was of high intensity. B. Achievable because it was adapted to each participant’s abilities. C. Both (A) and (B). D. None of the above.

14. Participants described exercising in a group as non-enjoyable, as they found themselves comparing their own abilities to the abilities of others in the group, which more often than not made them feel worse about their own abilities.

A. True B. False

15. According to the Continuity Theory of Aging, older people strive to maintain continuity in their sense of self and their self-image, despite impaired function, by continuity of physical activity patterns (i.e., remaining physically active during their life-span).

A. True B. False

16. Older people _____ prefer individually tailored programs undertaken in a group setting.

A. With cognitive impairment B. Without cognitive impairment C. Both (A) and (B) D. None of the above

17. Among community-dwelling older people with dementia, exercising together with people in the same situation can act as a motivator.

A. True B. False

18. Physical activity has been shown to allow people with _____ dementia to remain in touch with their former selves, (i.e., sustain a sense of continuity in their lives and their selfhood and to feel like healthy and physically capable persons).

A. Mild B. Moderate C. Severe D. All of the above

19. In the present study, participants voiced that exercise evoked bodily memories and it seemed like the body had its own memory, since it was observed that participants could perform exercises even though they said that they did not remember the movements.

A. True B. False

20. As reflected in the participants' voiced enthusiasm for the exercise supervisors in this study, _____ was highlighted as an important attribute.

A. The continuous iterative process of building on existing knowledge B. Being alert to any alterations needed for individuals that day C. Communication and building a relationship and trust with residents D. All of the above

21. Instructor qualities have previously been shown to influence attendance to exercise classes.

A. True B. False

22. Providers of exercise should consider the aspects of delivery that older people with dementia value and appreciate, including all of the following, except:

A. Tailoring and adaptation B. Large group sizes C. Fun and encouragement D. The rediscovery of body competencies

Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study

23. Exercise improves the ability to perform basic activities of daily living, such as:

A. Bathing B. Using the toilet C. Transferring from bed to chair D. All of the above

24. For older people living in residential care facilities, regular exercise can:

A. Maximize independence B. Likely slow the progression of dementia C. Promote sleep D. All of the above

25. A recent study showed that good _____ was the most important physical performance variable associated with good quality of life for nursing home residents with dementia.

A. Muscle strength B. Balance C. Both (A) and (B) D. None of the above

26. Which source of information do people draw on when they develop their self-efficacy beliefs?

A. Enacted mastery experiences B. Vicarious experiences C. Physiological and affective states D. All of the above

27. One of the positive experiences reported by the participants was the feeling of achievement that is derived from performing the exercises. This corresponds with the _____, which is considered the most powerful source of self-efficacy.

A. Enacted mastery experiences B. Vicarious experiences C. Physiological and affective states D. All of the above

28. The participants emphasized _____ as a positive instructor trait that created a sense of trust and safety.

A. Positive communication skills B. Knowledge concerning the aging body C. Both (A) and (B) D. None of the above

29. Verbal persuasion and the positive social support that one is capable of performing certain activities represent an important source of increased self-efficacy.

A. True B. False

30. The participants emphasized the importance of skills in individually tailoring the exercise program, giving rise to all of the following central points, except for:

A. The exercises should be safe, meaning one should avoid pushing the participants too hard. B. The exercises should not be performed over a length of time that causes tiredness afterwards. C. The exercises should be effective, meaning the exercises should be aimed high enough to give the participants a feeling of “being challenged” and having exercised. D. All of the above central points emerged from the results.

31. Several studies have demonstrated that people with dementia are more prone to feelings of _____, thus establishing a safe and secure setting for the exercises might therefore be of particular importance.

A. Insecurity B. Social isolation C. Loss of control D. Depression

32. If the task is deemed too _____, there will be no mastery experiences, therefore, the exercise instructor has an important role to play in moderating the appropriate dosage of exercises, thus serving the role as a facilitator of mastery experiences.

A. Difficult B. Easy C. Either (A) or (B) D. None of the above

33. The study participants stated that being _____ seemed to create vitality, a sense of mastery, and increased self-efficacy.

A. Included B. Met with expectations C. Informed D. All of the above

34. Research has shown that people with advanced stages of dementia cannot express their preferences consistently, and they should therefore not be involved in decision-making regarding their activities in the nursing home.

A. True B. False

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